Standards ressources

Fire protection

EN 45 545 - 15 EN 45 545 - 20

This standard (in its 2015 and 2020 versions) specifies the performance requirements for the reaction-to-fire of constituent elements of railway vehicles. 3 risk levels have been identified: HL1 – HL2 – HL3. HL3 corresponds to high-level requirements for sleeper trains, for example.

Duflot® nonwovens are tested in accordance with requirement R21, to ensure that they systematically perform to a minimum of HL2 level.

Duflot® can accompany customers in all testing required to satisfy the general standard (EN 45 545), particularly requirement R18 (complete seat) in the 2015 or 2020 versions.

Reaction-to-fire test (ISO 5660-1):

This involves evaluating the heat release rate and dynamic smoke production rate of horizontally oriented specimens which are exposed simultaneously to a heat source and spark.

The heat release rate is determined by measuring the difference between the oxygen consumption given and the value measured following exposure to the combination of a heat source and spark.

Determination of optical density (ISO 5659- 2):

A light beam (thermal irradiance) is exposed to the smoke produced during burning. The information collected using this beam can be used to optimise the materials by limiting the visual impact of smoke produced in the event of fire.

Determination of toxic gases (EN 17084):

All gas emissions are calculated while burning the materials in a smoke chamber.

ISO 9705-2

This test, which relates to the 2015 version, is used to establish the reaction-to-fire of a complete seat, depending on the method of manufacture, taking account of laceration, where applicable. Prior to fire testing, a laceration test with 150 N force is performed on the seat. In this case, the fire test will only be carried out on new seats. If the cut length is 50 mm or less, the seat shall be deemed cut-proof. If the cut exceeds 50 mm, any layers which are not bonded during manufacture will be removed.

Otherwise, the test is carried out using three seats which are cut in a similar way to the laceration outlined previously.

The method used for seat manufacture depends on these results. The results will determine whether the fireblocker is bonded to the foam or not.

For the 2020 version of requirement R18, the test method and laceration force have been updated and are specified in standard EN 16989/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EN 16989.

Test performed in our laboratory.